A new generation of powerful dark energy experiments will open new vistas for cosmology in the next decade. However, these projects cannot reach their utmost potential without data from other telescopes. This white paper focuses in particular on the compelling benefits of ground-based spectroscopic and photometric observations to complement the Vera C. Rubin Observatory, as well as smaller programs in aid of a DESI-2 experiment and CMB-S4. These additional data sets will both improve dark energy constraints from these flagship projects beyond what would possible on their own and open completely new windows into fundamental physics. For example, additional photometry and single-object spectroscopy will provide necessary follow-up information for supernova and strong lensing cosmology, while highly-multiplexed spectroscopy both from smaller facilities over wide fields and from larger facilities over narrower regions of sky will yield more accurate photometric redshift estimates for weak lensing and galaxy clustering measurements from the Rubin Observatory, provide critical spectroscopic host galaxy redshifts for supernova Hubble diagrams, provide improved understanding of limiting astrophysical systematic effects, and enable new measurements that probe the nature of gravity. A common thread is that access to complementary data from a range of telescopes/instruments would have a substantial impact on the rate of advance of dark energy science in the coming years.
Snowmass2021 Cosmic Frontier White Paper: Enabling Flagship Dark Energy Experiments to Reach their Full Potential, Jonathan A. Blazek, Doug Clowe, Thomas E. Collett, Ian P. Dell’Antonio, Mark Dickinson, Lluís Galbany, Eric Gawiser, Katrin Heitmann, Renée Hložek, Mustapha Ishak, Saurabh W. Jha, Alex G. Kim, C. Danielle Leonard, Anja von der Linden, Michelle Lochner, Rachel Mandelbaum, Peter Melchior, Joel Meyers, Jeffrey A. Newman, Peter Nugent, Saul Perlmutter, Daniel J. Perrefort, Javier Sánchez, Samuel J. Schmidt, Sukhdeep Singh, Mark Sullivan, Aprajita Verma, Rongpu Zhou, White paper submitted to the Proceedings of the US Community Study on the Future of Particle Physics (Snowmass 2021), arXiv:2204.01992